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CRITICAL INTRODUCTION

TO VOLUME 3 OF THE DIAL (1893)

The colophon is positioned three-quarters up the page, in landscape orientation, 
                        contained in a triple white-lined border. In the central foreground, a woman is seated on 
                        a black and white chest which is positioned on a platform. She is facing forwards. The 
                        woman is wearing a white dress with a white shawl that drapes around her shoulders and is 
                        fastened in the middle of her chest by a flower-shaped brooch. Her hair is tied up behind 
                        her and her long neck is exposed. Her left arm is held downwards by her side. Her left hand 
                        is holding a bouquet of flowers, some of which are depicted falling on the pedestal. Her 
                        right arm is bent and is holding an open, blank book. There is a large rose positioned 
                        above the book, with two stems extending downwards from the base of the flower and onto each 
                        page of the open book. The background is patterned with white interlacing vines, scattered 
                        flowers and thorns. A thin white banner runs across the inside of the ornament and scrolls 
                        behind the woman’s head. The banner reads, “ Above the ornament and slightly to the left, 
                        the letterpress text reads: “Printed at the Ballantyne Press London and Edinburgh.” Below 
                        the ornament and slightly to the left, the letterpress reads: “Sold by Charles H Shannon at 
                        the Vale in Chelsea. mdcccxciii.”
Figure 1. Ballantyne Press Colophon, Designed and Engraved by Charles Ricketts, Dial No. 3 (1893)

In October of 1893, twenty months after bringing out the previous number of their little magazine, Charles Ricketts and Charles Shannon published the third Dial. Typeset and printed at the Ballantyne Press under Ricketts’s direct supervision, the issue was available for purchase from Shannon at their shared home in the Vale, Chelsea. Ricketts designed and engraved an elaborate colophon for the press, showing a robed woman seated on a chest holding an open book in one hand and a sheaf of flowers in the other (fig. 1). The Latin logo, Sua cum venustate renata, drew attention to “the beauty of their newborn” and highlighted the co-editors’ pride in the aesthetic outcome of their collaborative effort.

By 1893, The Dial was beginning to be more widely recognized by those who appreciated aesthetic and artistic integrity in the making of books. The reviewer for the Studio declared that this “sumptuous folio of plates and letterpress is surely the finest magazine in the world,” and went on to hazard that “perhaps no modern journal of so limited a circulation ever had so much attention awarded it by foreign artists” (“Lay Figure”). Now confident of a committed audience locally and internationally, Ricketts and Shannon increased the print run from 200 to 250 copies and the unit price from 10 shillings and 10 pence to 12 shillings and 6 pence. As they explained in the Prospectus for the new number, the price rise was necessitated by the increase in the number of plates, or full-page images. Although they assured buyers that the price for Volume 4 would return to 10 shillings 10 pence, the remaining volumes of The Dial continued to be sold at the higher amount.

While the third issue has ten full-page images compared to the previous issue’s six, it has far fewer textual decorations: three wood-engraved initial letters and a single tailpiece comprise its only ornaments (see Database of Ornament). Also noteworthy is the editorial decision to include three pen-and-ink drawings reproduced by photomechanical process engraving after the second number had deliberately featured nothing but original artist prints. Dial No. 3 has a total of six original artist prints: three wood engravings—one each by Charles Shannon, Lucien Pissarro, and T. Sturge Moore—and three lithographs by Shannon. The wood-engraved frontispiece was a collaborative effort between artist and artisan: Reginald Savage created the design as “an experiment in line” and Ricketts drew and engraved it on the woodblock. The three pen-and-ink illustrations by Ricketts (2) and Savage (1) were reproduced by Emery Walker’s highly regarded firm, Boutall and Walker, and printed on Japanese paper to allow for the highest detail in printing. As the Sketch critic noted appreciatively, the Dial artists were attentive to the possibilities of both medium and reproduction technology: “they show a distinct appreciation of the technique required by the medium they use, so that pen-drawings are unlike the etchings, the lithographs and woodcuts are unlike either” (Theocritus IV.—Reginald Savage).

Two of the full-page images—Shannon’s wood-engraved illustration for the Vale edition of Daphnis and Chloe, “The Topmost Apple,” and Ricketts’s pen-and-ink design for Oscar Wilde’s The Sphinx, “In the Thebaid”—were printed in coloured ink. Brought out by Elkin Mathews and John Lane at the Bodley Head in 1893 and forthcoming in 1894 respectively, these designs perform the paradoxical roles of art for art’s sake and commercial advertisement for an illustrated book. But it might equally be said that Daphnis and Chloe functioned as an advertisement for The Dial. As the reviewer for The Spectator observed, the beautifully designed book would spark a new interest in the little magazine, which had heretofore not been “at all widely known,” due to “the evasive manner of its publication, and the forbidding character of a literature too closely modelled on the mysteries of Blake” (Rev. of Daphnis and Chloe).

The wood engraving, an illustration of “Daphnis and Chloe,” is printed in golden brown ink within a 
                        portrait oriented rectangular double frame. Above the image, printed in the same ink, is typography in all 
                        caps, preceded by a fleuron: “Daphnis plucks from the topmost bough where the gatherers had forgotten it the 
                        topmost apple lest perchance falling it should be trodden into the purpose ground or bitten by the venomous 
                        lips of some serpent.” The typography is the same width as the image, beneath which is printed the title 
                        “Daphnis and Chloe” and the page number 75. Centred in the image is a barren tree in which Daphnis, perched 
                        on a high branch, reaches out for an apple while Chloe kneels at the base of the tree. Daphnis is nude, with 
                        long hair that cascades over his shoulder. From the ground, a single vine grows upward and is wrapped around 
                        the tree. Chloe kneels to the left of the tree, holding her face in her hands. She wears a long dress and shoes. 
                        In the far right foreground is a crumpled basket or cloth holding apples. Two blooming trees with leafy foliage 
                        frame either side of the central tree. An animal is half-hidden behind the right tree, with its rear visible. 
                        In the distant background are hills, with a shepherd and sheep in the distance. At the top of the image, two 
                        white birds, possibly doves, fly down towards the tree at the right.
Figure 2. Charles Shannon, “The Topmost Apple,” Illustration for Daphnis and Chloe, Dial No. 3 (1893)

Reproduced as a proof from the recently published book, Shannon’s “The Topmost Apple” features the letterpress printed in caps above the ruled image and the title, “Daphnis and Chloe,” and page number (75) appearing below, all printed in gold-brown ink. Ricketts and Shannon wanted their first book, Daphnis and Chloe, to be a complete work of art displaying self-conscious design from cover to cover, just as their magazine did. Like the Dial, the book was printed on a hand press and aimed to revive original wood engraving as an art form. To ensure the harmony of type and image, and also to express symbolic and emotional meaning, Shannon’s figures are thin and attenuated, set within a landscape that evokes decorative design rather than earthly representation. Perhaps alluding to the wood-engraving’s title, the Spectator critic hailed Daphnis and Chloe as “one of the finest fruits of the revival of book-making” (Rev. of Daphnis and Chloe).

The lithographic image is set into a square on the centre of the page. The image, printed in soft grey tones, 
                        depicts a scene of apple gatherers in an orchard. In the foreground of the image four women recline in supine postures, 
                        two of them holding apples. The woman in the centre foreground is looking at the viewer, while the others are in 
                        profile. On the left, just behind the supine women, a woman stands on a ladder reaching up to pluck a fruit that is out 
                        of view above the picture plane. Behind the group of figures are piles of apples on the ground. In the centre of the 
                        image, dominating the middle-ground. In the background, illuminated in the centre of the orchard, is a pair embracing. 
                        They are in silhouette, surrounded by trees, and from behind them originates a burst of light that extends out towards 
                        the viewer, creating a tunnel of light between the rows of trees.
Figure 3. Charles Shannon, “A Romantic Landscape,” Dial no. 3 (1893)

The fruit motif repeats throughout the volume’s plates and letterpress. In Shannon’s beautiful lithograph, “A Romantic Landscape,” a group of women rest on the ground of an apple orchard, with embracing lovers in the distance encircled in a halo of light (fig. 3). Shannon also painted this subject in water-colour; a halftone print of the painting appears in the first Pageant, which Shannon edited with Gleeson White in 1896. In contrast, “The Intruder” is a comic scene in which a naked child, seated by a hamper of spilling fruit, looks apprehensively toward a rooster that has just entered the scene. Shannon’s other original lithograph, “White Nights,” looks into a bedroom where three women are preparing for night (fig. 4). One, likely the servant, is making up a bed, while the other two stand in their night dresses by the wash basin, kissing. A candle held by one of the women illuminates the scene and radiates out of a background mirror, as if to sanctify the possibility of same-sex love. “White Nights” appears to be a companion piece to “White Watch,” which was later published in the first volume of The Pageant. The Studio critic called Shannon’s three lithographs for the third Dial “exquisitely dainty” (“Lay-Figure”) and the Spectator declared that “for poetic charm in the design and artistic treatment of the medium no more beautiful lithographs than his have been recently produced” (Rev. of Daphnis and Chloe).

The lithographic image is set into a thinly-lined rectangle on the centre of the page. 
                        The image, represented in soft grey tones, shows a view into a bedroom in which three women 
                        are preparing for night. In the left foreground stand two women in long nightdresses in front 
                        of an open doorway beside a curtained window on the leftmost wall of the room. They stand in front 
                        of a wash basin set upon a draped stone pillar. The leftmost woman is positioned in three-quarter 
                        posture, washing her hands in the basin as she turns to kiss the woman beside her. Her hair is bound 
                        on the back of her neck and her night dress slips off of her right shoulder. The women face each 
                        other as they kiss. The woman beside her has long hair hanging down her front which she clasps in 
                        her right hand. Her left hand holds a flaming candlestick out to her left. The candlestick is 
                        centred in the image and its light radiates outwards. Nearby, in the middle ground and centre right, 
                        a woman wearing an apron with her hair in a snood bends over at 90 degrees to make up a bed or mattress 
                        on the ground. The bed is between the pair of women in the foreground and the woman in the 
                        middle ground. The floor is composed of diagonal planks of wood. On the wall above the woman making the 
                        bed is a framed mirror that catches and radiates the candle’s light.
Figure 4. Charles Shannon, “White Nights,” Dial No. 3 (1893)

Keen to cover the latest trends, the Sketch, an illustrated weekly of “art and actuality,” did more than any other magazine in England to promote the work of Shannon and his Dial colleagues. Launching a four-part series on “The Vale Artists” in early 1895, the self-styled “Theocritus” devoted an essay apiece to the art of Shannon, Ricketts, Lucien Pissarro, and Reginald Savage, in that order. Hailing Shannon as “the greatest English lithographer of the present time,” Theocritus reproduced “A Romantic Landscape” to “indicate the charm of his work which, from inscription to completion, passes through no hand save his own” (Theocritus, I.-Charles Shannon).

The wood-engraved image is set into a square, ruled border, printed, as is the 
                        image, in dark green ink. The image depicts an imaginary scene by a grotto and waterfall, 
                        where centaurs of various ages and sexes go about their daily life. The viewing position 
                        is somewhat above, looking down. The left half of the picture shows a crude home for the 
                        centaurs and the right half of the picture shows the landscape in which they live. In the 
                        centre foreground, a female centaur stands with her back to the viewer; she appears about 
                        to enter the wooden building. She has long hair and wears a vine-like headdress that extends 
                        down her body, entangling her tail and hind legs. She stands in front of the open doorway, 
                        holding a wooden doorframe in front of her to the right. Her shadowed face is in profile. 
                        In the interior of the building, in the extreme left, is a female centaur suckling an infant 
                        centaur while another child centaur leans on several urns. Between these centaurs and the 
                        centaur wearing the headdress is a large round urn resting on a stool. Behind the urn a tree 
                        that appears to be a supporting beam for the building extends up to the top of the frame, 
                        with branches that span to the left and right. In front of the urn is a grassy sward, 
                        extending to the right half of the image. In the right foreground four male centaurs engage 
                        in wrestling in front of a pool, where other centaurs are swimming, one of which is holding 
                        an archer’s bow. Behind the pool, a waterfall is depicted. A female centaur rests against a 
                        wall structure observing the wrestling. In the grassy ground are a few small seashells. Two 
                        flowers are beside the grass on the left side of the frame.
Figure 5. “Centaurs.” Drawn and Engraved on the Wood by Charles Ricketts after a Design by Reginald Savage, Dial No. 3 (1893)

Theocritus introduced Reginald Savage to the Sketch audience as “the least well-known of the illustrators of the Dial” (IV.—Reginald Savage). Despite Savage’s relatively low profile outside the Vale, the editors allotted him top spot in Volume 3, with his leading design for “Centaurs” (fig. 5). Described as “an experiment in line,” Savage’s image was drawn and engraved on the wood by Ricketts in a joint effort demonstrating not only the Dial’s collaborative practices, but also its interest in hybrid forms. Both the choice of subject for the frontispiece and the complexity of its imaginative rendering are significant. The wood-engraving depicts a fantastic scene that combines a built environment with natural features such as a waterfall, grotto, and pool, where centaurs of various ages and sexes disport themselves. The domestic life of centaurs is revealed within a little wooden hut in the left corner, wherein a female centaur suckles an infant centaur kneeling on her lap. Another female centaur, with long, beautiful hair and decorative devices adorning her head and body, appears to be working at a distaff, making a long banner that swirls out over the grotto where male centaurs swim, wrestle, and play at archery.

As a frontispiece for the Dial, “Centaurs” directed readers forward to the long essay on Gustave Moreau in the volume, published by Ricketts under the name Charles Sturt. Moreau and other French Symbolists celebrated these mythic creatures in various ways; in England the “cult of the centaur” centred on Charles Ricketts and his circle (Woodring 9). According to Carl Woodring, centaurs for Ricketts represented “not a crude union of spiritual and bestial, but a cohesion of the intellectual, spiritual, and physical—man made whole by artistry, the transcendency of art over nature” (10). As a hybrid, marginal creature, the centaur became a symbol for the abnormality of the artist, just as abnormality “became in the 1890s integral to art as decorative treatment” (ibid.). Expressing the urgent need for art to stand outside the commercial concerns and narrow values of modern life, decoration and design take unnatural forms in The Dial throughout its print run. Introduced in Ricketts’s (Unsigned) essay on Maurice de Guerin and the elaborate wood-engraved headpiece he designed on the subject for The Dial’s second volume in 1892, centaurs remain an important presence through to the magazine’s fifth issue of 1897. In this final volume, Ricketts published T. Sturge Moore’s translation of de Guerin’s “The Centaur,” illustrated with his original wood-engraving, “Centaur with a bough.”

The anthropomorphic open tailpiece is in landscape orientation, positioned beneath the text, 
                        and extending three-quarters of the letterpress’s width. The ornament depicts eight women who 
                        appear to be dancing or gathering. Each woman is barefoot and is dressed in a white gown. There are 
                        three women in the left region of the ornament. The woman furthest to the left is standing upright 
                        in right profile. She is wearing a white bonnet. Her hands are beneath her gown, lifting it upwards. 
                        There is another woman standing to her right who is facing forwards. Her hair is extremely long and 
                        uplifted, and it extends throughout the upper portion of the ornament to the extreme right. Another 
                        woman is kneeling on the ground in front of them. She is in right profile and is looking upwards 
                        towards the woman with the long hair. She holds the bottom of her dress up off the ground with her 
                        right hand. In the central and right regions of the ornament, there are six women. The woman in the 
                        centre, furthest from the foreground, is in profile facing left. She is holding her dress with her left 
                        hand and reaches leftward with her right arm. She has long curly hair which is also uplifted and extends 
                        leftward to meet the hair of the woman with the extremely long hair on the left. Another woman is standing 
                        in front of her and slightly to the right. She is also holding her dress with her left hand and reaches 
                        leftward with her right arm. In front of her, a woman is in the same position, but standing further to 
                        the right. She is wearing a white bonnet. In the extreme right, there are two women facing each other. 
                        The woman closer to the left is wearing a bonnet and is facing right in profile. Both of her arms are 
                        outstretched in front of her. The woman closest to the right is standing in left profile. Her face and 
                        her long hair are visible, but her body is mostly covered by the woman on her right. There are sprouting 
                        flowers at scattered on the ground beneath the women’s feet.
Figure 6. T. Sturge Moore, Wood-engraved tailpiece of Greek Girls Dancing, Dial No. 3 (1893)

Asserting art’s a-temporality, classical myth weaves throughout the third volume of the Dial. Immediately following the “Centaurs” frontispiece is Moore’s long narrative poem, “Danaë,” which tells the story of the ill-fated titular character, raised from infancy in an impenetrable tower to ensure she remained a virgin, in a vain attempt to thwart the prophecy that her son would kill her father, King Acrisius. After Zeus enters the tower in a golden shower, Danaë bears Perseus, who does indeed grow up to slay his grandfather. In 1903 Moore’s Danaë: A Poem, with three wood-engraved illustrations by Ricketts, became the last Vale Press book to be published by Hacon and Ricketts. Moore also contributed a wood-engraving on a pagan theme, “Pan Mountain,” to the third Dial, as well as six short lyrics. He punctuates “Chorus of Greek Girls, Vase E. 783 BM,” an ekphrastic poem on the painted frieze on a piece of pottery in the British Museum, with the only wood-engraved tailpiece in the volume (fig. 6).

Ricketts’s reproduced pen drawing, “And you will see Ariadne Gazing at her Sister Phaedra who Hangs by a Rope,” references the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur. The image was reprinted in Volume 1 of The Pageant (1896) in an essay by Gleeson White celebrating Ricketts’s work (85). His design for Wilde’s The Sphinx, “In the Thebaid,” focuses on the mythical hybrid creature with human face, eagle’s wings, and lion’s body, walking through stone pillars toward a ruined statue. Savage’s pen drawing, “The Lotos-Eaters,” alludes to Tennyson’s poem based on the incident in The Odyssey when the hero’s men had to be dragged back to their ship and chained, after they ate the dangerous flower and fell into a blissful trance (fig. 7). Calling attention to the “power of imaginative treatment” displayed in the image, Sketch critic Theocritus compares it favourably to the most famous illustrated book of the 1860s: “Surely, since the Moxon Tennyson was published, few designs could be found showing as much concentration in workmanship and thought as this little drawing” (IV.-Reginald Savage).

The unframed black-and-white rectangular drawing, reproduced by line-block engraving by
                        Walker & Boutall, is shown in portrait orientation. It illustrates Tennyson’s poem “The 
                        Lotos Eaters.” The image depicts a close-up view of a ship inside which Odysseus and his men 
                        lie in a trance, lotus flowers growing out of the hold, with sirens surrounding them. At the 
                        top of the image, in the background, a group of five sirens loom over the ship; their hair and 
                        bodies are stretched and curved, giving the appearance of ocean waves. The siren at the top left 
                        of the image lies on the top deck of the ship, playing a small harp. In the ship, six robed men 
                        with long, curly hair lie sleeping. Several of them lean on the sides of the ship on the right 
                        middle and foreground, and another lies in the left foreground, his face turned towards the viewer. 
                        The head of another sleeping figure is visible in the left middleground. In the extreme right foreground, 
                        facing away from the viewer, Odysseus is lashed to the ship’s mast, wrapped in canvas and ropes.. 
                        In the top left corner are stylized initials, or the artist’s monogram; The line of the capital “R” 
                        extends down and is crossed by an “S.”
Figure 7. Reginald Savage, “The Lotos-Eaters,” Dial No. 3 (1893)

With pen-and-ink work like Savage’s, and an ongoing interest in the relationships between word and image, art and nature, and matter and spirit, the Dial carried the Pre-Raphaelite tradition into the world of fin-de-siècle little magazines. John Gray’s essay on Garth Wilkinson (1812-1899), explicitly connects this homeopathic doctor, social reformer, and philosopher with a nineteenth-century tradition running from William Blake to the Pre-Raphaelites, partly through his translations of and essays on the pluralistic-Christian theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), and partly through his own visionary poetry. “His collection of poems, Improvisations from the Spirit (1857),” Gray writes, are comparable with Blake’s poetry and “attracted the attention of Rossetti” (21). Citing Wilkinson’s “two poles of expression,” Gray offers extracts from his poems “Madness” and “Solitude” (22).

The black-and-white woodcut is centred on the page within a heavy black rectangular border. 
                        In the foreground is a dark-haired woman seated on a hill, reading. She holds a book in her lap 
                        with her left hand while her right hand supports her forehead as she looks down upon the page. 
                        She’s wearing a plain dress with a ruffled collar and puffed sleeves. She’s seated upon a grassy 
                        knoll scattered with flowers. Behind and below the figure is a rural village made up of small 
                        buildings with white walls and dark rooftops with chimneys. In the background, beyond the village, 
                        is a terraced hill occasionally interspersed with trees and clouds behind. On the furthest hill '
                        sits a solitary barn.
Figure 8. Lucien Pissarro, “Solitude,” Dial No. 3 (1893)

Highlighting a contemporary interpretation of the latter pole of expression, the editors placed Lucien Pissarro’s woodcut, “Solitude,” between signatures in the middle of Gray’s essay (fig. 8). Seated on a hill above a town in a Breton countryside, a young woman is shown absorbed in the book she holds on her lap, disengaged from the busy life around her and alone in the alternative world of words. In his essay on Pissarro for the Sketch, Theocritus suggests the French artist’s work “has s omething of the artistic spontaneity which characterized Blake in his lighter moods, notably the ‘Songs of Innocence’” (III.—Lucien Pissarro). The comparison of Pissarro with Blake is an interesting one. In 1894 Lucien and Esther Pissarro founded the Eragny Press, where they produced their own version of the illuminated books created by William and Catherine Blake, using the method of wood-engraving and three-colour printing rather than etching and hand-colouring.

John Gray’s other contribution to Dial no. 3 was a hymn translated from the Italian of St. Francis Assisi. The lyric describes a metaphysical assault and union with Christ, with “Love setteth me a-burning” its incrementally powerful refrain (31-2). With its fusion of the sensuous and the spiritual, this symbolic poem is in keeping with the volume’s Pre-Raphaelite proclivities. The issue’s only work of short fiction, Moore’s “Old Kitty,” connects thematically with a Pre-Raphaelite interest in women’s sexuality, but also, in its treatment, with a fascination with the quotidian details of women’s daily lives shown in Shannon’s “A Simple Story” in the first issue of The Dial. Perhaps also linking to Pissarro’s “Solitude,” Old Kitty lives alone, high on a hill ablaze with sunflowers, exemplifying the life encapsulated in the epigraph from the seventeenth-century fabulist La Fontaine: “Femme qui n’a filé toute sa vie, /Tâche à passer bien des choses san bruit” —loosely, the woman who has stayed in one place all her life, quietly endures without noise.

Overall, the third number of the Dial was a masterpiece of art, literature, and book-making—totally unlike anything currently in the market. No wonder that Pissarro, coming from France to England expressly to meet Ricketts and Shannon, was amazed to discover “that the Continent had been the first to recognize the Vale and its workers,” and that the artists were virtually unknown in England (Theocritus III.—Lucien Pissarro). Although foreign artists may have been the first to appreciate The Dial, however, by 1893 the little magazine was gaining sympathy with its views closer to home as well. As the “Lay Figure” for the Studio declared, “the [third] number, whether you do, or do not, sympathise with the ideas so ably set forth by pen and pencil, is a unique instance of the exceeding vitality of art which is essentially English, although it appears an exotic to the man in the street.” In defining their art as “essentially English,” the critic evoked the little magazine’s Pre-Raphaelite roots: “Fantastic, imaginative, and bizarre, the illustrations to The Dial are firstly art, and almost equally literature” (114). Their rising fame did not, however, incite the Dial’s editors to bring out the next issue quickly. As Theocritus observed: “they have enough experience and knowledge of the world to take their success quietly, and not to allow it either to turn their heads from the ideals they have ever truly followed or their hands from the labour in which they delight” (IV.—Reginald Savage). It would be three years before Ricketts and Shannon put the fourth Dial before the public in 1896. And when they did, it would be under the imprimatur of the newly founded Vale Press, established by Charles Ricketts with business partner Llewellyn Hacon (1860-1910).

©2020 Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, FRSC, Professor of English, Ryerson University

Works Cited

  • Gray, John. “Garth Wilkinson.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, pp. 31-32. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-gray-wilkinson/
  • —. “A Hymn Translated from the Italian of Francis Assisi.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, pp. 17-18. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-gray-hymn/
  • “The Lay-Figure Speaks.” The Studio: An Illustrated Magazine of Fine and Applied Art, vol. 2, 1894, p. 114. Yellow Nineties 2.0, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dial3-review-the-studio-1894/
  • Moore, T. Sturge. “The Centaur.” Translated from the French of Maurice de Guerin. The Dial, vol. 5, 1897, pp. 16-21. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv5-moore-centaur/
  • —. “Chorus of Greek Girls.” The Dial, vol. 5, 1897, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-moore-chorus/
  • —. “Danaë.” The Dial, vol. 5, 1893, pp. 1-9. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-moore-danae/
  • —. “Old Kitty.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, pp. 27-30. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-moore-kitty/
  • —. “Pan Mountain.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-moore-mountian-AD/
  • Pissarro, Lucien. “Solitude.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-pissarro-solitude-AG/
  • Ricketts, Charles. “Phaedra and Ariadne.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-ricketts-phedra-AB/
  • —. “In the Thebaid.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-ricketts-thebaidAE/
  • Savage, Reginald, and Charles Ricketts. “Centaurs.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, frontispiece. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-savage-frontispiece/
  • Shannon, Charles. “An Intruder.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-shannon-intruder-AF/
  • —. “A Romantic Landscape.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition , edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-shannon-romantic-AA/
  • —. “A Romantic Landscape, after a water-colour drawing.” The Pageant, vol. 1, 1896, p. 211. Pageant Digital Edition, edited by Fred King and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/pageant_volumes/
  • —. “The Topmost Apple.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, np. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-shannon-apple-AH/
  • —. “The White Watch.” The Pageant, vol. 1, 1896, p. 239. Pageant Digital Edition, edited by Fred King and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/pageant_volumes/
  • Sturt, Charles [aka Charles Ricketts]. “A Note on Gustave Moreau.” The Dial, vol. 3, 1893, pp. 9-16. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dialv3-sturt-moreau/
  • Theocritus. “The Vale Artists, I.—Charles Shannon.” The Sketch, vol. 8, January 23, 1895, p. 617. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dial-review-the-sketch-jan-1895/
  • Theocritus. “The Vale Artists, II.—Charles Ricketts.” The Sketch, vol. 9, March 13, 1895, p. 350. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0 , Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dial-review-the-sketch-mar-1895/
  • Theocritus. “The Vale Artists, III.—Lucien Pissarro.” The Sketch, vol. 9, April 17, 1895, pp. 615-616. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dial-review-the-sketch-apr-17-1895/
  • Theocritus. “The Vale Artists, IV.—Reginald Savage.” The Sketch, vol. 9, April 21, 1895, p. 683. The Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/dial-review-the-sketch-apr-21-1895/
  • Unsigned. “Maurice de Guérin.” The Dial vol. 2, 1892, pp. 11-14. Dial Digital Edition, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, 2018-2020. Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2019. https://1890s.ca/dialv2-deguerin/
  • White, J.W. Gleeson. “The Work of Charles Ricketts,” The Pageant, vol. 1, 1896, pp. 79-93. The Pageant Digital Edition, edited by Fred King and Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Yellow Nineties 2.0, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020. https://beta.1890s.ca/pageant_volumes/

MLA citation:

Kooistra, Lorraine Janzen. “Critical Introduction to Volume 3 of The Dial (1893).” The Dial Digital Edition, Yellow Nineties 2.0, edited by Lorraine Janzen Kooistra, Ryerson University Centre for Digital Humanities, 2020, https://1890s.ca/dialv3_critical_introduction/.